In requiring more than a majority, and principles. Number 68 is the second in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers and limitations of the Executive branch and the only one to describe the method of selecting the president. Nor would it be found easy suddenly to embark them, dispersed as they would be over thirteen States, in any combinations founded upon motives, which though they could not properly be denominated corrupt, might yet be of a nature to mislead them from their duty. 1, i venture somewhat further, and hesitate not to affirm, that if the manner of it be not perfect, it is at least excellent. Are there qualifications to be an Elector? In this relation, then, the proposed government cannot be deemed a national one; since its jurisdiction extends to certain enumerated objects only, and leaves to the several States a residuary and inviolable sovereignty over all other objects.
Historically, dictatorships have used a majority vote to infringe on the rights of smaller groups. The purpose of the Electoral College federal papers electoral college was to ensure that each state would have its own autonomous government, and the Federal Government wouldnt be able to infringe on their liberties. Is it possible to lose the popular vote but win in the Electoral College? It is true that in controversies relating to the boundary between the two jurisdictions, the tribunal which is ultimately to decide, is to be established under the general government. Another Example: California has 53 representatives in Congress, and two senators, so it has 55 electoral votes in total.
Essentially, the French people democratically created a dictator, voting away their very own rights and freedoms. So far the government is federal, not national. But there are some exceptions to this rule, notably, Maine and Nebraska. Electoral, college, consisting of 538 electors nominated by their respective political parties, gives voting leverage to smaller states, to ensure that every region has a chance of influencing the outcome of an election. The Electoral College exists for the same reason, for example, that we count the number of games won in the NHL in a Stanley Cup finals series, rather than the total number of goals scored.
But the precautions which have been so happily concerted in the system under consideration, promise an effectual security against this mischief. James Madison worried about what he called factions, which he defined as groups of citizens who have a common interest in some proposal that would either violate the rights of other citizens or would harm the nation as a whole. Madison has a solution for tyranny of the majority: A republic, by which I mean a government in which the scheme of representation takes place, opens a different prospect, and promises the cure for which we are seeking. Both the president and the vice president of the Senate watch over the counting process and then the president of the Senate announces the results, determining who is now the president and vice president of the United States. The Senate, on the other hand, will derive its powers from the States, as political and coequal societies; and these will be represented on the principle of equality in the Senate, as they now are in the existing Congress. Contents, background edit, constitutional debates edit, throughout its proceedings, the, uS Constitutional Convention of 1787 debated the method for selecting the president, trying to find a method that would be acceptable to all the bodies represented at the convention. Most electors are loyal members of the party that has selected them, and in 26 states, plus Washington,.C., electors are bound by laws or party pledges to vote in accord with the popular vote.
First, he recognized, the "sense of the people should operate in the choice and would through the election of the electors to the Electoral College. No individuals who have "too great devotion of the President in office" No individuals who currently hold elected positions within the government may serve as electors. When and where does it take place? Their transient existence, and their detached situation, already taken notice of, afford a satisfactory prospect of their continuing so, to the conclusion. Hamilton expressed confidence that: It will not be too strong to say, that there will be a constant probability of seeing the station filled by characters pre-eminent for ability and virtue. No senator, representative, or other person holding a place of trust or profit under the United States, can be of the numbers of the electors. Thus without corrupting the body of the people, the immediate agents in the election will at least enter upon the task free from any sinister bias.
It unites in an eminent degree all the advantages, the union of which was to be wished for. Additionally, some states penalize what the system calls faithless Electors, individuals who dont vote in accordance with their previous pledge to vote for their candidate (2). How do political parties select their Electors? Citizens go to the polls to elect a president, they are in fact voting for a particular slate of electors. Tags: electoral college, presidential election. And this will be thought no inconsiderable recommendation of the Constitution, by those who are able to estimate the share which the executive in every government must necessarily have in its good or ill administration. Throughout history, approximately 99 of Electors have voted as pledged (2). This certificate shows who won the majority, and the victorious electors represent the state at the meeting of the electors in December of the election year. The New Jersey plan was similar to the Randolph/Virginia plan but called instead for the possibility of a plural executive. A: The framers of the Constitution didnt trust direct democracy. 4 Modern positive reaction edit The Constitution's process for electing the president and vice president has won praise as a reasonably designed system by which to operate these elections in the United States. On the Electoral College, the Federal Farmer accepts the concept of the Electoral College, finding that "The election of this officer (the vice president as well as of the President of the United States seems to be properly secured." The. But if the government be national with regard to the operation of its powers, it changes its aspect again federal papers electoral college when we contemplate it in relation to the extent of its powers.
In other words, the Electoral College protects the interests of smaller populations. In the other 24 states, electors dont have to vote for their partys candidate, but its a common practice to do so due to party loyalty. Neither the US Supreme Court nor the Constitution demands that Electors be completely free (2). Works referenced in Federalist. The President-Elect is sworn in as President of the United States on the 20th of January, taking the oath of office, amid former presidents, vice-presidents, senate members, and other politicians and administrators (2). When the entire draft of the Constitution was considered, Gouverneur Morris brought the debate back up and decided he too wanted the people to choose the president. The writer further speculates, "Is it not probable, at least possible, that the president who is to be vested with all this demiomnipotence who is not chosen by the community; and who consequently, as to them, is irresponsible. Notes in the Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787.
James Wilson proposed the use of a direct election by the people, but he gained no support for this idea, and it was decided that the president would be elected by Congress. "A Calamitous Compact." PS: Political Science Politics.4 (2016 791-796. (version used is from Ohio University Press. This end will be answered by committing the right of making it, not to any preestablished body, but to men chosen by the people for the special purpose, and at the particular conjuncture. 115 in Ohio.
Miller, "Why the Electoral College is good for political science (and public choice)." Public Choice 150.1-2 (2012 1-25. They also wrote that it was, as noted above, crucial to protect the interests of the minority against the interest of the majority. As I mentioned earlier, Electors dont have to vote in accordance with the popular votes of their States. It was desirable that the sense of the people should operate in the choice of the person to whom so important a trust was to be confided. Electoral, college process is when the 538 electors meet and vote for the President and the Vice President. Electoral, college does make it possible for a candidate to win the popular vote and still not become president. During the election between Bush and Al Gore back in 2000, writes m, political pundits were calling for the Electors to vote for what was right (3). Additionally, the 14th Amendment states that state officials who have rebelled against the United federal papers electoral college States government, given aid, or helped its enemies in any way are barred from serving as an Elector (2). Interests of slave-holding states edit, the interests of slave-holding states may have influenced the choice of the. Office of the Federal Register,.S. The Federalist Papers 1788. First, since he only has one vote, he is equal to his substituents.
Overlapping authority and differentiated electoral bases were meant to slow down the federal government and to force a compromise between the interests of the minority and the majority, that way the majority didnt steam-roll the minority. 1, vide, federal Farmer. They cast their ballots for the president and the vice president on two separate ballots, recording them on whats called a Certificate of Vote (2). In the Federalist Papers, written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, Madison argued that preventing contentious and controversial topics of the day from influencing particular election cycles was a necessity (5). However, in order for the Elector to receive a nomination, they either pledge an allegiance to vote for their political party or in relation to the popular vote by state federal papers electoral college law (2). If the presidency was based purely on the popular vote, each state would have different ways of increasing their chance of deciding the election. As Alexander Hamilton writes in The Federalist, papers, the Constitution is designed to ensure that the office of President will never fall to the lot of any man who is not in an eminent degree endowed with the requisite qualifications. In the latter, the local or municipal authorities form distinct and independent portions of the supremacy, no more subject, within their respective spheres, to the general authority, than the general authority is subject to them, within its own sphere. This advantage will also be secured, by making his re-election to depend on a special body of representatives, deputed by the society for the single purpose of making the important choice.
68 is the 68th essay of, the Federalist, papers, and was published on March 12, 1788. The immediate election of the President is to be made by the States in their political characters. The choice of several, to form an intermediate body of electors, will be much less apt to convulse the community with any extraordinary or violent movements, than the choice of one who was himself to be the final object of the public wishes. In truth, Federal election laws and the constitution dont compel electors to vote for their partys candidates. For example, a state could lower the voting age to 17 or 16, just to get their numbers up (3). A small number of persons, selected by their fellow-citizens from the general mass, will be most likely to possess the information and discernment requisite to such complicated investigations. Electoral, college as the mode of electing the president. This is a problem because, as noted earlier, Electors pledge allegiance to their political party, so if they did vote their conscience, they would be violating their pledge, as well as their loyalty to the party (3). By 1796, the Federalists and Republicans were rapidly being organized- with leadership provided by Hamilton and Madison- making the electoral college a minor adjunct of little importance. Accessed at the University of Virginia Department of American Studies Web site.