Community acquired pneumonia research paper

community acquired pneumonia research paper

Despite the increased clinical advances, the CAP mortality rates have decreased insignificantly since the introduction of penicillin (Nakou Woodhead 2009,. There are many ways to community acquired pneumonia research paper catch this disease as you can get it anywhere from your home or the hospital. Pneumonia is more dangerous in older individuals and people with impaired immune systems. Most health care givers consider it the leading cause of mortality among the nosocomial diseases. Etiological Classification of CAP in children and infants In most children, identification of causative organism may not be critical.

Essay on Pneumonia: History, Classification, Signs and Symptoms

This causes the person to have difficulties breathing. Despite taking aggressive measures, the definite cause of CAP is only identifiable under limited cases (Carrie 2005,. Comments (0) check these samples OF Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased cost to the NHS. Its community acquired pneumonia research paper diagnosis varies from one hospital to another, but it requires a modern infiltrate in chest X-rays together with other factors. Home, subjects, health Sciences Medicine, community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased cost to the NHS. Nevertheless, in the third world, and among the very old, the very young and the chronically ill, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death. Pathophysiology : Pneumonia fills the lungs alveoli with tluid, hindering oxygenation. The prognostic tools like. It is the most common ICU infection and the most fatal of all. Influenza moraxella catarrhalis person to person in enclosed pop. Influenza type. Table.0: Etiological Classification of CAP in children and infants Common Causes of CAP in Children Etiology Types Virus Influenza virus A/B, Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV measles virus and adenovirus Atypical Bacteria.

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Justification Pneumonia is an inflammatory lung condition, which affects the microscopic air sacs called alveoli. As described by Hubmayr (2002 the duration of mechanical ventilation of antibiotic exposure before the onset of VAP are considered some of the most important factors in the microbiology, incidence, and severity. Ventilator Acquired Pneumonia : Literature Review and Theory Application Literature Review The problem identified is the rising incidence of ventilator- acquired Pneumonia within the healthcare setup. The alveolus on the left is normal, whereas the one on the right is full of tluid from pneumonia. However, he has been feeling weak short of breath, feverish and chills. Before the Act the healthcare has been much centralized and monopolistic and the absence of competition had a negative impact of customers who had no opportunity to use the service they need and had to use the service that was available to them. Generally, the high rates of morbidity and mortality have been studied together with the multiple causative factors and the various strategies that institutions, governments, and other players have put in place in an effort to reduce the prevalence and incidence. Discuss the ca for free! Other commonly isolated bacteria include Haemophilus influenzae in 20, Chlamydophila pneumoniae in 13, Mycoplasma pneumoniae in 3, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Legionella pneumophila and gram-negative bacilli. Pneumonia caused by Legionella may occur with abdominal pain, diarrhea, or confusion, while pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with rusty colored sputum, and pneumonia caused by Klebsiella may have bloody sputum often described as currant jelly. However, the treatment of CAP faces various challenges.

VAP affects community acquired pneumonia research paper persons who are critically ill in intensive care units. Hence, it is very important to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia to optimize patient outcomes. Pneumonia is a dangerous disease that if not treated right away, will result in mortality. ASA 325 mg po daily, acetaminophen 500 mg po 2 tabs 1-2 X per week for headaches, aches, and pains. 3 Pages(750 words)Essay Ventilator Acquired Pneumonia? This means that a combination of preventative measures as well as treatments would ensure that the mortality rates among children would be brought down by a million, an extremely. This document will used as an inference as it elaborates on the relationship on chemotherapy and decreased mortality of VAN. The fact however needs further. Community Acquired Pneumonia Most pathogens responsible for CAP in children are prominently bacteria and viruses. The body tries to prevent the lungs from getting infected.

Culture takes long time and could be normal flora, so not good antigen test are good, use urine, serum, serology cough, rusty sputum elderly, alcoholic, immunocomp, kids gram diplococci bacteremia in old, pen. Viral: advertisements: Neuraminidase inhibitors may be used to treat viral pneumonia caused by influenza viruses (influenza A and influenza B). Pneumonia in children may additionally be classified based on signs and symptoms as non-severe, severe, or very severe. Social history : Retired university professor (Biochemistry married; three adult children (healthy two grandchildren. Furthermore, adults experiencing chronic illnesses and living in specific parts of the world, or even living near nursing homes have high risks of getting infected. Ventilator acquired pneumonia (VAP) is one of those infections (Chastre and Fagon, 2008). Advertisements: Pneumonia frequently starts as an upper respiratory tract infection that moves into the lower respiratory tract. Idiopathic (Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia) : Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia or noninfectious pneumonia are a class of diffuse lung diseases. X and V factor needed for growth. Past medical history : Hypertension X fifteen years, right knee surgery after injury skiing eight years agohas healed and no residual problems. This is a protozoan parasite which causes illness by infecting the intestinal and respiratory epitheliums of humans, reptiles and mammals (Levine, 1973).

He is also coughing up yellow sputum which has increased in frequency and amount for the past few days. Under 30 cough, fever, sore throat, lymphandenopathy and bullous myringitis bronchopneumonia on chest Xray tetracyclines Mycoplasma pneumoniae influenze A or B, adenovirus, RSV, parainfluenza, CMV epidemics chest Xray: bilat. It affects between 10 to 20 of patients under mechanical ventilation. Home, flashcards, community, acquired, pneumonia, pneumonia, classical symptoms cough, fever, chest pain. Download file to see previous pages The CAP carries an adjusted mortality rate of over 22 percent. Culture: grow on chochlate agar but not sheep agar. The trend that is obtained from the research shows that a reduction in the incidence of VAP through the increase of angle of head evaluation from 25. Incidence of and risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients. Respiratory therapists should evaluate the medical history and become good at inspection, palpation, percussion, and visualization signs community acquired pneumonia research paper of pneumonia.

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Ventilator acquired pneumonia (VAP) is pneumonia that occurs in patients on endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy tube after 48 hours or more which was not originally present before the ventilation. Pulmonary : Slight splinting on left side with inhalation; crackles and rales in left lower base; O2 saturation: 88 percent. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report on the disease Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis is a disease of the intestines caused by a parasite known as Cryptosporidium. This paper has reviewed the emergence of the NHS and Community Care Act of 1990 and addressed it implication for the local authorities. Physical exam : General: Pleasant man, appearing stated age; breathing is labored and patient appears to be in moderate distress.

Remember, a pharmacist will be reading this. However, that percentage of CAP resulting from bacteria remains.Download file to see next pagesRead More Cite this document ( Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of Essay,.d.) Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of Essay. Fungi can cause pneumonia, but its not very common. Viral causes The viral etiology accounts for over 35 percent of the causal agents in children and infants. Pyogenes Bacteria Legionella, Brucella abortus,. Vaccination: Vaccination is effective for preventing certain bacterial and viral pneumonias in both children and adults. The most important ways to prevent this disease is to wash your hands, stay away from sick people, and check with the doctor if flu symptoms persist. Epidemiology: Pneumonia is a common illness affecting approximately 450 million people a year and occurring in all parts of the world. Initial work identifying the two common bacterial causes Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed by Carl Friedlander and Albert Frankelin 18, respectively. More severe signs and symptoms may include decreased community acquired pneumonia research paper thirst, convulsions, persistent vomiting, or a decreased level of consciousness.

The length of ICU stay is increased by 28 with VAP and, each VAP incidence is estimated to produce a significant amount of cost increment. These bronchi subdivide into smaller airways called bronchioles. This journal is significant as it sheds light on community acquired pneumonia research paper the predisposing factors that increase susceptibility to VAP. URI, otitis, sinuitis, gram neg coccobacilli, alcoholics, kids, smokers, copd, plueral effusion. Pneumonia, by Jesse Torres, american Career College, abstract.

He has chest which he describes as stabbing knife-like pain community acquired pneumonia research paper on the right side. Analyze the following case. These antibiotics, are often given intravenously, may be used in combination. The partnerships between private and public service providers increase the choice of customers to use the service they need and remain in the community. Haemophilus influenza, chochlate agar lysed blood so releases factors, X and V factor need to be added parainfluenza grown with V factor only productive cough and fever, RR. He visited community pharmacist to get over the counter medication for cough and cold.

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Diagnosis : Pneumonia is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical signs and a chest X-ray. Diffuse rhonchi grow on choch.; direct flour. Although pneumonia was regarded by William Osier in the 19th century as the captain of the men of death, the advent of antibiotic therapy and vaccines in the 20th century has seen radical improvements in survival outcomes. Discuss the ca Evidence Based Approach to Ventilator Acquired Pneumonia.after the eight day therapy but, the occurrence of drug resistance incase of relapse was lower in these people. In adults, investigations are in general not needed in mild cases of pneumonia. Cook,., Walter,., Cook,., Griffith,., Guyatt,., Leasa,., Jaeschke,., Buison,.(1998). Several studies have been conducted in this regard and various measures have been outlined by researchers to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. Only certain types of fungi cause pneumonia. There are more than one hundred microorganisms that can cause CAP. Up to 3 pages, 3-4 references, masters, nursing, APA format.

1 Pages(250 words)Essay Eliminating Preventable Morbidity and Escapable Mortality.eliminating preventable community acquired pneumonia research paper morbidity AND escapable mortality By Eliminating Preventable Morbidity and Escapable Mortality Introduction High rates of morbidity and mortality are some of the challenges that continue to affect many parts of the world. Grab THE best, paper 91 of users find it useful, read Text. Causes Pneumonia is usually caused by an infection to the lungs. History of present illness : DC had a cold about two weeks ago that has progressively gotten worse and moved from his head into his chest. The symptoms were described by Hippocrates (c. FAQ Blog New Essays Essays Miscellaneous The Newest Essay Topics Index samples by all dates Join us: Copyright StudentShare. Advertisements: History: Pneumonia has been a common disease throughout human history. Fungi (Fungal pneumonia) : Fungal pneumonia is uncommon, but it may occur in individuals with weakened immune systems due to aids, immunosuppressive drugs, or other medical problems.

Complications Pneumonia is difficult to treat in Show More. The most common parasites causing pneumonia are Toxoplasma gondii, Strongyloides stercoralis and Ascariasis. Ventilator is a machine assembled. Pneumoniae elderly, alcoholics, immuno comp. Preview, extract of sample community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased cost to the NHS. D.C is a non-smoker but takes 1-2 glasses of red wine a day. Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lungespecially affecting the microscopic air sacs (alveoli)associated with fever, chest symptoms, and a lack of air space.Pneumonia is typically caused by an infection but there are a number of other causes. White blood cells and other immune proteins attack the organisms to prevent it from spreading. Let us find you another Essay on topic Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased cost to the NHS. Bacteria (Bacterial pneumonia) : Bacteria are the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia, with Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in nearly 50 of cases. Answer:.C is a sixth eight year old male who present to the clinic after being referred by a community pharmacist. It is an acute infection of pulmonary parenchyma community acquired pneumonia research paper in patients with such infection in the community, download full paper, file format:.doc, available for editing, hIDE this, paper.

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Differential diagnosis : advertisements: Several diseases can be similar to pneumonia, including: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd asthma, pulmonary edema, bronchiectasis, lung cancer, and pulmonary emboli. This is significant so that effective measures can be developed based. VAP is a primary source of ever-growing illness and death. Medications prior to admission : Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg po daily, metoprolol 50 mg po bid, sertraline 50 mg po daily. These smaller airways finally end in clusters or tiny air sacs called alveoli. In most children with lrti, the diagnostic testing may identify more than three pathogens, and at time may include combinations of both viruses and bacteria. Ventilator Acquired Pneumonia Though medical interventions aim at restoration of patients well-being, some medical procedures may pose as demerits by acting as source infections. He has been feeling weak, short of breath, and feverish with chills; is coughing up yellowish sputum (which has been increasing in both frequency and amount over the past few days and has had some chest pain, which. This Website is owned and operated by Studentshare Ltd (HE364715), having its registered office at Aglantzias, 21, complex 21B, Floor 2, Flat/Office 1, Aglantzia, Cyprus. When an influenza outbreak is occurring, medications such as amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir, and oseltamivir can help prevent influenza. In addition, morbidity and mortality rates are also increased. Mycoplasma pneumonae smoker, yellow sputum and fever, child sick.

Labs : WBC: 18 X 103 cells/mm3 Neut: 85 percent Bands: 6 percent Lymph: 8 percent HgB: 12 mg/dL HCT: 40 percent Na: 140mEq/L K:.5 mEq/L Cl: 100 mEq/L HCO3: 24 mEq/L BUN: 11 mg/dL SCr:.6 mg/dL Blood. Aches, cough Viral Pneumonia nose, axilla, groin, and/or pneumonia gram cocci in clusters bacteremia Chest xray: cavitation, pleural effusions, and nodules cephalosporins and vanc Straphylococus auerus oral colonization alcoholic, diabetic, nursing home, patients recently hospitalized Klebsiella in alcoholics Pseudommonas. There have been several cases of patients diagnosed of CAP and core measures are being established to identify the appropriate antibiotic and propose relevant care for CAP patients. Therefore, the plans are different for the city and rural areas because of the local circumstances. Tularensis and Pseudomonas pseudomallei Fungi Coccidioides immitis, blasmomyces dermatitidis and Histiplasma Capsulatam A significant proportion of the CAP occurs as a result of mixed infections where a number of pathogen is involved. High death rates occur in nearly all parts of the world. Bacterial: Antibiotics like cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and vancomycinmay be recommended. It usually occurs in one lung but if it occurs in both, its called double pneumonia.

Community - acquired - pneumonia -cap-is-a-significant. Summary, name: Tutor: Course: Date: University: Community, acquired, pneumonia (CAP) Introduction, community, acquired, pneumonia refers to a type of pneumonia acquired infectiously through normal social contacts as opposed to acquisition through hospitalization. Alcoholism is associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobic organisms, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, smoking is associated with Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus community acquired pneumonia research paper influenza etc. 4 Pages(1000 words) Research Paper Reducing the Risk of Ventilator- acquired Pneumonia.of the sample size that was used could be able to be overcome through prolonging the length of the study to include a large sample or through making the study multicenter. No family members have upper respiratory tract infections (urti) at the present time. The different types of microorganisms vary among the different groups of people. Risk factors for infection depend on the organism involved. Allergies : Amoxicillinnausea and diarrhea, immunizations : None in the past ten years. A vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae is also available for adults. Its so dangerous because its hard to diagnose at its early stages. The major airways of the lung are called bronchi. 5 Pages(1250 words)Essay Pneumonia.for the treatment of other health problems that might be a cause of the condition.

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His mother died of lymphoma at the age of eighty while his father is still alive at the age of ninety-two with cardiovascular accident and hypertension. Retrieved from community - acquired - pneumonia -cap-is-a-significant ( Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Is a Significant Cause of Essay) Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Is a Significant Cause of Essay. Interstitial infiltrates fever, chills,. Pneumoniae Uncommon Causes of CAP in children Viruses Corona virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, mumps virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Chlamydia. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

community acquired pneumonia research paper

Viral pneumonia causes about half the cases reported. According to Tablan et al (2004 it is very important to educate the medical professionals about strategies to decontaminate hands, microbiological surveillance and use. He went to his community pharmacy to get an over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold preparation. Family history : Mother died of lymphoma at the of age eighty years. Commonly implicated agents include: rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV adenovirus, and Para influenza.

community acquired pneumonia research paper

No community acquired pneumonia research paper specific antiviral medications are recommended for other types of community acquired viral pneumonias including coronavirus, adenovirus, Hantavirus and Para influenza virus. Pneumonia, severity Index (PSI) and the severity of illness index stratifies the patients based on mortality risks. Nonsmoker, drinks 12 glasses of red wine per day. 460 BC 370 BC). Gram cocci beta lactamse producers treat same. Prevention : Prevention includes vaccination, environmental measures, and appropriately treating the disease. Assignment 2: Patient Medication Profile Assignment. Bacterial pneumonia can occur suddenly by itself or may develop after having influenza. Pneumonia is an inflammation in the lungs that is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms. Researchers have used various laboratory tests to establish microbial etiology of CAP. When the diagnosis can be properly made and the lab results are confirmed, the patient is already behind and in serious condition.

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Environmental: advertisements: Reducing indoor air pollution is community acquired pneumonia research paper recommended along with no smoking. It has also been found that if the necessary treatment for the condition is made available, especially for children, worldwide, then the mortality rates would be reduced by another half a million. During inspiration, the lungs receive air through the trachea. ; urine, gram bacilli; no org. This is faced by challenges like use of antibiotics before confirmation of diagnosis, and this ay negatively affect the drug resistance. It starts off as flu-like symptoms: dry cough, fever, muscle pain, fatigue, and headache.

Many types of bacteria can cause pneumonia. Bacteriaemia gram stain: gram ; diplococci, lacent shaped, blood culture. Many cases develop suddenly with chest pain, fever, cough, shortness of breath, and chills. This attack causes the air sacs to become inflamed and fill with fluid. 7 Pages(1750 words)Essay Ventilator Acquired Pneumonia : Literature Review and Theory Application?

Add to wishlist, delete from wishlist, cite this document. Legionella Pneumonia cough, shortness of breath, fever, crackles cant pass person to person urine antigen test person in caves, histoplasma Capsulatum mold infectous but yeast grows in body and causes pathology so cant pass, dimorphic, aerosolized from soil acute pulmonary community acquired pneumonia research paper infection splenectomy. Write appropriate orders for the patient and be thorough in your writing. Cause : Pneumonia is primarily due to infections of virus and bacteria. 5 Pages(1250 words)Essay Preventing vent acquired pneumonia (VAP) in the icu.Prevention of VAP in ICU Ventilator-associated pneumonia or VAP is one of the challenging complications in intensive care units and contributes to significant health care costs, morbidity and mortality. Bacteria were first seen in the airways of individuals who died from pneumonia Edwin Klebs in 1875. If not treated correctly, the patient may develop a secondary bacterial pneumonia. Parasites (Parasitic pneumonia) : A variety of parasites can affect the lungs. The nasal cilia prevent many organisms from entering the airways, but some microorganisms manage to get through and find their way into the alveoli. But in severe cases, pulse oximetry, chest radiography, and blood tests including a complete blood count, serum electrolytes, C-reactive protein, and possibly liver function tests are recommended. Viruses (Viral pneumonia) : In adults, viruses account for approximately a third of pneumonia cases. The lungs are delicate, spongy organs surrounded by membrane called pleura. VAP is the commonest type of nosocomial infection, occurring forty eight hours after the initiation of mechanical ventilation.

Signs and Symptoms, pneumonia can be difficult to diagnose. PneumoniaClassical symptoms cough, fever, chest pain Dry cough, ear ache, feverGram Stain: no squamous cells, lots community acquired pneumonia research paper of PMNsperson to person; young adults; bullocucs myringitis Mycoplasma pneumonae smoker, yellow sputum and fever, child sickCulture: grow on chochlate agar. Up to 3 pages, 3-4 references, masters, nursing, APA format. Papers, Theses, and, research. Community acquired pneumonia is the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States affecting over 1 million individuals costing the government over 10 billion in treatment and patient care (Stanton, 2002). Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased cost to the NHS. Discuss the ca - Essay Example.