Students cannot always think of the future. These are the intangibles that fuel our thoughts, theories, philosophies, beliefs, ideologies, and an overview of the the thinkers who articulated them. Espousing the notion that some ideas have lasted over centuries and are as relevant today as when they were first conceived, Perennialism urges that these ideas should be the focus of education. Secular Perennialists advocate education as a means of constructing a common foundation of historical thought and reason directed at transforming the students paradigm or way of thinking. Similar top perennialism, essentialism aims to develop students intellectual and moral qualities. In all educational environments, all of the main philosophies provide a framework for establishing classroom practices. The Essentialist philosophy became popular when the American society had been challenged by the Great Depression. A Perennialist asks, What are the essential things a student must know? The guiding philosophies of education reflect not only the internal assumptions of the individual teacher, but they also construct the culture of schools and school districts. They inspire our thoughts and inform our beliefs. The perennialist curriculum is universal and is based on their view that all human beings possess the same essential nature. Motivation is fine, and if the teacher can provide it, well and good, but if not, the student must work at the task regardless.
Only after these philosophical essentialism educational philosophy essay underpinnings can be analyzed will a new philosophical platform emerge to guide the leadership of the school. While the Essentialist philosophy focuses heavily on curriculum basics, Perennialism focuses more on forming critical, analytical thinkers. They believe the ideas are as relevant and meaningful today as when they were written. Administrators Administrators are central to preparing the educational environment for teachers and students. According to Perennialists, when students are immersed in the study of those profound and enduring ideas, they will appreciate learning for its own sake and become true intellectuals.
In overcoming barriers to implementing Perennialist philosophical constructs, teachers should consider ways of inviting differentiated thinking processes for all students. Perennialists lament the change in universities over the centuries from places where students (and teachers) pursued truth for its own sake to mere glorified training grounds for the students careers. If the student is interested in the subject, well and good, but if not, s/he still must be required to do the tasks. Quite simply, some types of philosophies invite fewer kinds of interactions and student-teacher relationships. However, most students are only given a limited overview of specific philosophies that might shape their philosophical view. They do not change; they are never dated. It is a set of ideas and beliefs that guides teachers actions and provides a framework for thinking about educational issues. Essintialism IN terms OF teaching, educational essentialism is an educational philosophy whose adherents believe that children should learn the traditional basic subjects thoroughly and rigorously. The teachers are not concerned about the students interests or experiences. (Kauchak and Eggen, 197) Teachers use philosophy everyday in their classrooms. According to Rohmann (1999 Aquinas primary goal was to reconcile faith and reason or philosophy and revelation (p. Great books: The foundation of a liberal education, NY: Simon Schuster. They feel that greater educational opportunities have lowered standards in the schools.
New York: Random House Books. Clashes occur when guiding philosophies conflict. Only when administrators seek understanding or prepare a thesis or increase their educational preparation to better understand philosophical viewpoints can they begin to learn the culture of the school over which they preside. For the Perennialist, a great education is a study of the classics. Schooling should be practical, preparing students to become valuable members of society. In this philosophical school of thought, the aim is to install students with the "essentials" of academic knowledge, enacting a back-to-basics approach. Conclusion Essentialism and Perennialism are both heavily utilized in Americas classrooms along with an eclectic combination of the other educational philosophies. Essentialists argue that classrooms should be teacher-oriented.
While students learn the profound and enduring ideas present throughout time, there is little emphasis on those who learn discipline by using textbooks (Shaw, 2006). Based on the evidence supporting Perennialism as a traditional philosophical model, a parent most likely would not see differentiated thinking strategies employed for the non-traditional thinker. In this type of classroom, it can be asserted that a system of diversity would be difficult to achieve, and individuals with special education needs would experience difficulty in having their needs met. An Essentialist will usually teach some set subjects similar to Reading, Writing, Literature, Foreign Languages, History, Mathematics, Science, Art, and Music. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Essentialists believe that teachers should try to embed traditional moral values and virtues such as respect for authority, perseverance, fidelity to duty, consideration for others, and practicality and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens. They use tried and true teaching methods and techniques that are believed to be most beneficial to disciplining students minds. The teacher should serve as an intellectual and moral role model for the students. The insights presented in these works are eternal. Consequently, teachers and parents must help students overcome their desire for immediate ends and direct them to future objectives. For students, they may never understand why conflict exists within the classroom environment between themselves essentialism educational philosophy essay and a teacher, in the case of a student with diverse needs or non-traditional thinking patterns.
Educational, philosophies, elizabeth Howell, liberty University, what is the philosophy of education? The harsher methods, it is maintained, have been justly th parties to this controversy appear to have neglected some very important data that have been accumulated during the past ten years by the now unpopular and much-abused. Perennialists disapprove of teachers requiring students to absorb massive amounts of disconnected information. Teachers often hold a very different view regarding mandated testing or standards established by No Child Left Behind. Applications of, essentialism and Perennialism that include roles and impacts on certain groups including students, teachers, and administrators are outlined. My educational goal is to develop problem solving, decision making and other life skills. When one teacher holds a dramatically different view of their role than another teacher, conflict may occur. Many of them form the very basis of our identity (Rohmann, 1999,. The Perennialist might freely enact debate and see the act of thoughtful debate as an advantage in response to reading a given text, because the debate itself would allow students the opportunity to think about specific texts and form their. Basically, the essentialists were concerned with a revival of efforts in the direction of teaching the fundamental tools of learning as the most indispensable type of education. In fact, in his writings, Bagley was resolute in reminding educational professionals that a healthy democracy was dependant on strong curriculum content. S/he is responsible for the education and intellectual growth of his/her students. For new administrators entering a school setting in which conflict is prevalent, it would be helpful to understand the philosophical underpinnings that guide the cultural construct.
First, in a classroom constructed by this philosophy, parents would potentially see traditional disciplines like math, science, history, foreign language, and literature being taught. He is a social being and lives in a community of men. Under the present regime, it is asserted, drill and discipline have become obsolete terms, effort is at a discount, and the net result is a loss of stamina and a weakening of the moral fiber. Within this framework, it can be theorized that the Perennialist classroom would encompass the drive for reflective thought based on inquiry. The teachers role is to instill respect for authority, perseverance, duty, consideration, and practicality. Within a Perennialist curriculum, activities are tied to the past and not to what is essential right now. The philosophy also asserted that other philosophies over-emphasized the process of learning instead of content knowledge in the curriculum (Null, 2003). From the time the first student enters their room until the last student walks out, philosophy is affecting the way the teacher runs his/her classroom and how they interact with their students. Based on the need for todays classrooms to meet the needs of a variety of students, these are significant barriers that are not easily overcome despite the notion that Essentialism formed the foundation of the American education system. Directtrue dbaph A N4891604 siteehost-live Hutchins,. In addition to the administrators role in overseeing the school staff, administrators must also balance their role in a larger context. His basic tenant is that an individual learns best by studying the classics.
English 101 and English 102 are a specific example of essentialism educational philosophy essay essentialism. The essentialists have as their ultimate aim to fit the man to perform justly, skilfully and magnanimously all the offices, both private and public, of peace and of war. In the face of this conflict, students may not be able to clearly articulate their conflict. The teacher as a professional is far more likely to know what her students will need to know in the future than do they. A parent, sending their child to the Perennialist classroom would inevitably see an orderly teaching environment adhering to specific rules and common forms of basic curriculum driven by thoughtful debate, inquiry, and teacher driven student introspection. Education requires hard work and effort.
Certain minimum essentials literature, mathematics, history, etc.,. Based on these conclusions, the Essentialist educators goal is that all students will possess basic skills, an extensive body of knowledge, and disciplined pragmatic minds ready to meaningfully contribute to a essentialism educational philosophy essay democratic society in America. The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, as the natural and human worlds at their most essential level, do not change. Essay, topic:, Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website! It can be argued that the overarching goal of the Perennialist classroom is to promote opportunities for students to interpret, question, and think, in order to prosper keen insights and renewed thinking about old ideas. This is not an example of the work produced by our. Students may not understand how or why their classroom has been formed in accordance with specific philosophical underpinnings. Teachers often view these mandates as inhibitors for creating a research based, thought provoking classroom resulting a student-centered, learningful educational environment.
Even in graduate programs preparing administrators for leadership, these formative philosophies are not readily taught. Another influence of change in a given school occurs when a new administrator brings their own philosophy to the educational environment that is different than previously held beliefs. It can can also be elaborated that most higher education teacher training courses have been founded on the premise of inquiry and thought, underscored by established, district approved or state mandated curricula, which are also supported by Essentialism and Perennialism. Teachers In most teacher education formation courses, students formulate a philosophy statement of how their classroom will be designed. The principles of knowledge are enduring. Essentialism is different from what Dewey would like to see in the schools. Moreover, this traditional approach is meant to train the mind, promote reasoning, and ensure a common culture.
Bagley (1874-1946 recognized essentialism educational philosophy essay a leader of the essentialists in education in 1938, stood in opposition to extreme and radical tendencies in American education. I completely agree with this statement. Terms Concepts Bibliography Suggested Reading. First, it is helpful to know that philosophy springs from our ideas as humans. The foundation of essentialist curriculum is based on traditional disciplines such as math, natural science, history, foreign language, and literature. Education should introduce the pupil to the universal concerns of mankind thorough the study of the great works of literature, philosophy, history, and science. Progressivism is an educational philosophy emphasizing real-world problem solving and individual development.
(Wilds and Lottich,. Philosophies are also tied to an individuals or organizations underlying values, which values are difficult to change, unless an internal transformation occurs within an individual or an organization. Keywords, education, educational, foundations, essentialism Life-long Learning Perennialism and internal value systems governing philosophies that inspire the teachers relationship with the student, philosophies for many educators and institutions have changed from teacher-centered to more student-centered beliefs. Teachers, schools and society. Qualified writers in the subject of education are ready and waiting to help you with your studies. For teachers struggling with one type of philosophical construct in terms of motivating students or building positive relationships with parents, communicating their philosophical viewpoint could be helpful for alleviating tension and conflict to allow students a window of insight. Students sit and take notes in a classroom which holds over one hundred students. Essentialists aim to instill students with the essentials of academic knowledge, patriotism, and character development.
The movement essentially began with Bagleys deeply held value that essentialism educational philosophy essay education should teach knowledge from the past, because if students were separated from past knowledge the future of democracy would be endangered. Perennialists emphasize, though, that students should not be taught information that may soon be obsolete or found to be incorrect because of future scientific and technological findings. The philosophies taught in university classes are typically guided by the philosophy of the given philosophical platform adopted by the university education department. This traditional approach is meant to train the mind, promote reasoning, and ensure a common culture. Visit m to see how we can help you! These ideals were highly representative of early American culture and an early societal and cultural construct. Perennialists believe that the focus of education should be the ideas that have lasted over centuries. This format allows students to gain the ability to develop a full range of rational powers. Any real or substantive transformation in public education environments typically occurs, because of changes in higher education philosophies. (2001 Mortimer Adler read Platos works while working as a secretary to the editor of the New York Sun, and resolved to become a philosopher. Essentialism, perennialism, philosophical Overviews, central to all academic disciplines and the formation of ideas are the philosophies that guide our values and beliefs regarding a given academic discipline. They are educational goals, curriculum, teaching methods, learning environment and assessment.
Most likely, these relationships will impact attitudes toward students and colleagues. These are the creative works by historys essentialism educational philosophy essay finest thinkers and writers, which Perennialists believe are as profound, beautiful, and meaningful today as when they were written. Teachers should consider sharing their philosophical viewpoints with students in order to allow students the opportunity to reflect on specific attributes of the classroom environment, teacher attitudes, and student expectations. Essentialism William Bagley was considered the founding philosopher of the Essentialist movement. Parents most likely will not see very much teacher creativity or student choice in the Essentialist classroom, because teaching is based on an information delivery model that students receive and apply. Particularly at the high school and university levels, Perennialists decry undue reliance on textbooks and lectures to communicate ideas. The child should be taught certain basic subjects that will acquaint him/her with the worlds permanencies: English, languages, history, mathematics, natural sciences, the fine arts, and philosophy. Sadker and Sadker (1994) reported that present day American Essentialism accepts the social, political, and economic structure of American society and culture and is a fairly conservative philosophy. (Kauchak and Eggen, 203) It is more likely to change than any other educational philosophy. Retrieved January 1, 2008 from ebsco online database, Academic Search Premier. One of the most remarkable features of American society is that the difference between the uneducated and the educated is so slight (Hutchins, 1954). Perennialists criticize the vast amount of discrete factual information that educators traditionally have required students to absorb. Students should be taught hard work, respect for authority, and discipline.
They emphasize that students should not be taught information that may soon be outdated or found to be incorrect. Perennialists hold that subject matter should be the center of the curriculum. These philosophies are derived from the original philosophers who wrote about the philosophy and reflect a much earlier time and societal construct. The central concept of Essentialism seems to be a back to basics approach to traditional educational concepts. Self-discipline is fine, but most of the times it is insufficient. Abstract, an overview of, essentialism and Perennialism, their philosophical definitions, historical underpinnings, and their role and impacts on student learning in public school education environments is presented. An example of essentialism would be lecture based introduction classes taught at universities. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 19(2 99 124. Education requires mental discipline. The content gradually moves towards more complex skills and detailed knowledge. Later, Adler partnered with Robert Hutchins, then president of the University of Chicago.